Prostate Cancer, Symptoms and Causes

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Prostate cancer is cancer in the prostrate. Prostrate is a small walnut-shaped gland positioned below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostrate secretes fluid that nourishes, protects and transports sperm.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in males. According to Runcie C.W Chidebe and Charles T Orjiakor in the article “Navigating Prostate cancer control in Nigeria”, “prostate cancer is both the most common and most deadly  cancer with 32·8 cases and 16·3 deaths per 100 000 men” in Nigeria.

There are various types of prostate cancers, Sarcomas, Neuroendocrine tumors, transitional cell carcinomas, small cell carcinomas, the most common, Adenocarcinomas and others.

It is important to note that not all growths in your prostrate are cancerous and not all prostate problems are a sing of prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and Prostatitis both cause symptoms similar to prostate cancer. BPH enlarges the prostate gland though it does not bring any increase in the risk of prostate cancer. Prostatitis causes inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland is most time caused by bacterial infection


Prostate cancer in early stages rarely show signs or symptoms but as the disease advances, the following symptoms may be observed:

  • Bone pain – Pain in lower back, hip or chest
  • Blood in urine and semen
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Loss of bowel control
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Effortless Weight loss

See your doctor when you notice any persistent sign and symptom.




The causes of prostate cancer are not clear but as with cancer in general, prostate cancer forms when cells divide faster than usual. These abnormal cells (cancerous cells) continue living and multiplying even when normal cells die. The abnormal cells due its accumulation invades nearby tissues and, in some cases, spread to other parts of the body.


According to experts, it is not possible to prevent prostrate cancer but the risk of having it can be reduced by the following:

  • Maintaining healthy weight
  • Exercising regularly
  • Regular prostate screenings
  • Quit smoking
  • Eat healthy/nutritious diet


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